The cultural identities consolidated by writers like José Vasconcelos, Fernando Ortiz, Nicolás Guillén, Gilberto Freyre, and Oswald de Andrade, and naturalized as national discourses from the 1920s forward, are derived from earlier formulations. But their cultural emphasis is new, as are their proclamations that the mestizo is superior rather than degraded. The mestizo nation of this era appears inclusive, and its representations are festive and exuberant. Such identities are also considered counterhegemonic in much postcolonialist work, as well as in some scholarship on race and ethnicity in the United States. Critics of these mestizo identities point out that despite their mixed origins, they are as essentialized and monocultural as are other, “purer” racial and national categories. Positing a unified culture and a national race, they work toward homogeneity, dissolving otherness or engulfing racial others. The images they have created are still powerful, though, and mestizaje in the national mold is still considered by some as a solution to racism and racial division.