I figured out how the CAPES (or CAPET, for technology) fits into the edifice of degrees and certifications: it’s the teaching qualification most people have. You can still try for the agregé after that and get a raise and 3 hours fewer of class per week, and teach higher up, but I never figured it out since there seems to be so much job overlap between them. I figured out that the new “master” is bac+5 and the old maîtrise, bac+4. AND: the key: formerly you did a maîtrise, in one year, and you got the diplôme d’études approfondies after the first year of the troisième (first year of doctoral work). But that’s been eliminated and now the 2 year “master,” with thesis, replaces the maîtrise and the DEA. (I guess knowing these things will be useful sometime.) Last truly fascinating fact on this topic: the doctorat d’état has been eliminated. A degree like this still exists in Brazil and check it out: you do it while you’re an assistant professor. It’s a national exam/thesis and getting it is what gets you tenure in research type institutions and some others. So note how it makes tenure fairer: it depends on getting a certain qualification, not on having a book on a fashionable topic.