What is francophonie and what was/is the relationship of former colonies to France? How does this differ from Spain/England? Francophonie seems the most Franceocentric, or Mothercountryocentric. This is something which must really be figured out. Is the métis conciliatory or contestatory? A challenge to “purity” (or something like that) or a support for it? French colonies did not have the longstanding mestizo colonial classes, or the mestizo-criollo alliances of the Spanish ones, or did they?